In most developing countries the state has made huge investments in large-scale canal irrigation. It has also played a predominant role in managing and operating these systems. However canal irrigation has been plagued by several problems. In India, for instance, the most widely known difficulties have arisen over inequity in water distribution between head and tail reaches, water logging, low recovery from irrigation fees, mismanagement of irrigation infrastructure and a widening gap between irrigation potential created and functions utilized. Different approaches to addressing these issues have been advocated and experimented with, emphasizing both technological and institutional interventions. The latter have included rights reform and market creation, pricing and decentralization.