This report summarises five years of collaborative investigation by Indian and Nepali researchers on water management needs and options in Gujarat, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and parts of Nepal. The sections focus on the specific water management issues and challenges in case study areas. The core messages, however, relate to the fluid mosaic of water governance -- how society may be able to address the sharp edged, immediate constraints present at local levels and shaped by local conditions but ordered within a larger, changing, fluid and poorly understood picture. Field research in case study areas was conducted by Nepal Water Conservation Foundation (NWCF, Kathmandu, Nepal), the Madras Institute of Development Studies (MIDS, Chennai, Tamil Nadu), the Institute of Development Studies, Jaipur (IDS, Jaipur, Rajasthan) and the Vikram Sarabhai Centre for Development Interaction (VIKSAT, Ahmedabad, Gujarat). The Institute for Social and Environmental Transition (ISET, Boulder, Colorado) coordinated and supported the project.