Water market reforms are being promoted by international organizations, such as the World Bank, and pursued within many developing countries. Actual experiences with water markets are limited and the opinions regarding the beneficial or detrimental impacts diverse. It is therefore crucial to learn from the few functioning markets. Some of the longest operating, and most mature markets in the world, are to be found in Southeastern Australia. This paper examines the outcome of water trade in Southeastern Australia and combined with US and Chilean experiences outlines some lessons for the introduction of markets in developing countries.